EXPERIENCE OF BIOLOGIC FARMING IN THE MIDDLE PREDURAL OF RUSSIA
In Russia, there are still few followers of biotechnology in farming. In the Republic of Bashkortostan (RB) it is planned to switch to organic farming only four farms. In one of them - in peasant farm (PF) "Shakirov F.T.," carried out research of the Bashkortostan Research Institute of Agriculture with the aim to study the degree of biologization of the farming system. The farm is located in the Northern Forest Steppe of the republic within the Middle Predural. The relief is rolling plain. The climate is moderately warm and the rainfall is satisfactory. Grey forest soil, humus content - low, phosphorus and potassium - medium and elevated. The forest area of the territory is 13%. In general, the territory of the farm is favorable for the biologization of farming. The development of organic farming began in 2012. The structure of crops changed with the achievement of equal participation of cereals and long-term herbs by 2017 - 50% of the area of ration, absence of clean fumes. The task of reproduction of soil fertility and weed control was taken over by perennial herbs, with the dominance of legume species. During the years of transition to a biological farming system, field crop yields increased and became 1.5-2 times higher than those of ordinary farms in the region. Grain yield for 2014-2018 averaged 2.6-2.8 t/ha, hay of perennial herbs - 4.5 t/ha. The yield of grain of spring wheat after grain crops was 2.45 t/ha, and on a reservoir of perennial herbs - 3.0 t/ha, or 22% more. The soil under the herbs of the 6th year of life had an increased content of mobile phosphorus, exchange potassium and easily hydrolysable nitrogen - a sufficient basis for forming a high yield of cereals going after herbs. Optimal crop yields are achieved without the use of fertilizers. Weed purity is also maintained and no herbicides are required. These factors reduce the cost of cereal cultivation technology, which results in a much higher farm return than the average. Thus, the structure of crops, the way in which soil fertility is reproduced, the yield and the cost of production show successful biologic farming in the farm.
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