OBTAINING DIFFERENT LEVELS OF COTTON PLANT YIELD WITH IRRIGATION BY SPRINKLER ON LIGHT-BROWN SOILS OF THE LOWER VOLGA REGION
The article presents the results of studies conducted in 2019-2021, in which 4 irrigation regimes were examined with pre-irrigation thresholds of soil moisture 65-65-60, 70-70-65, 75-75-70, 80-80-75% HB against the background of 4 doses of mineral fertilizers N 70 P 30 K 23, N 105 P 45 K 34, N 140 P 60 K 45 and N 175 P 75 K 56 kg.d.v./ha in the conditions of the South of Russia. The results of field experiments showed that in order to achieve a cotton plant yield of 2 t/ha, 3 variants of combinations of the studied factors were established, of which the most effective was maintaining pre-irrigation soil moisture of 65-65-60 % HB and applying increased doses of fertilizers N 105 P 45 K 34 kg d. v./ha calculated for a yield of 3 t/ha, since with this combination of the studied factors, the yield of raw cotton plant was 1.94 t/ha at the lowest cost of irrigation water (CALL) 914 m3/t and the coefficient of water consumption (Kv) 1387 m3/t. To obtain a yield of 3 t/ha out of 3 variants, the greatest efficiency was observed at an available water supply level of 65-65-60% HB in combination with increased doses of fertilizers N 140 P 60 K 45 kg d. v./ha (for a yield of 4 t/ha). Here, the yield of raw cotton was 2.92 t/ha with the most efficient use of water (CALL was 596, and Kv was 905 m3/t). The best combination of the studied factors for obtaining a yield of 4 t /ha out of 2 established was the variant with maintaining the pre-irrigation threshold of soil moisture of 75-75-70% HB and the level of fertilization of N 140 P 60 K 45 kg d. v./ ha (for a yield of 4 t/ha). The irrigation water costs here were 522 m3/t, the water consumption coefficient was 704 m3/t, and the yield of raw cotton was 4.21 t/ha. Among the 3 variants of combinations of the studied factors to obtain a yield of 5 t/ha, the most effective was the variant combining pre-irrigation soil moisture of 75-75-70% HB and the application of mineral fertilizers with doses of N 175 P 75 K 56 kg d. v./ha (for a yield of 5 t/ha), since the maximum cotton yield was observed here was 5.14 t/ha, simultaneously with the minimum CALL – 432 and Kv – 581 m3/t.
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