OCCUPATIONAL IMPACT ON SOME DIAGNOSTIC INDICES OF WORKERS OF AGRO-INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX

Research article
DOI:
https://doi.org/10.23649/JAE.2023.38.6
Issue: № 10 (38), 2023
Suggested:
05.09.2023
Accepted:
12.10.2023
Published:
19.10.2023
438
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Abstract

Existing physical and neuropsychic stress that accompanies professional activity of workers of an agro-industrial complex reduce the functional capacity of the nervous system and leads to a significant change in working capacity. Objective. To study the state of the central nervous system of workers engaged, which is necessary to preserve their professional longevity and quality of life. Materials and methods. Workers were examined with a psychophysiological testing device UPFT-1/130 Psikhofisiolog; Anfimov tables were used to test the functional state of their central nervous system. Results. Studies of the functional state of visual and auditory analyzers and a visuomotor reaction, which reflect the general functional state of the CNS during an 8-hour shift, demonstrated no significant changes in the most labile indices of the central nervous system. Conclusion. Applying functional diagnostic methods in the course of preliminary medical examinations while employing a candidate and periodic medical check-ups of workers allows to identify the presence or absence of pathological changes in the CNS.

1. Introduction

It is known that tension in the CNS and centers responsible for autonomic reactions is one of the important links that ultimately form psychosomatic diseases. The existing neuropsychic tension, directly related to the professional activity of workers of the agro-industrial complex, leads to a change in the functional state of their organisms

,
,
,
,
. In this regard, it is necessary to identify maladaptive disorders at the early stage of formation in order to subsequently implement preventive measures
,
,
.

2. Research methods and principles

The examination involved workers (operators, machinists) of the agro-industrial complex main and auxiliary facilities. Inclusion criteria: males, 30-40 years old (average age: 36.4±0.4 years). Exclusion criteria: occupational history of extreme conditions (firefighters, EMERCOM rescuers, etc.).

The study group was examined during routine medical check-ups with standard methods of examination, which allowed to describe the state of the body functional systems that are most often and constantly involved in the labor process.

 The functional state of visual and auditory analyzers was assessed by the speed of reaction to light and sound stimuli and the critical flicker fusion frequency, for which a psychophysiological testing device UPFT-1/130 Psikhofisiolog (Limited Liability Company Medikom MTD, Taganrog) was used. The general state of psychophysiological functions was studied with the Anfimov table test. The weighted average skin temperature was measured with the Postnikov and Smoliansky table test.

The studies were carried out during the working day, 3 times in an 8-hour shift: at the end of the first hour, after 4 hours and at the end of the 8th hour during the day and night shifts.

Statistical analysis of the results was performed with Statistica 12 software (StatSoft, USA). The quantitative data distribution was analyzed using the Shapiro-Wilk test. In case of conformity to the normal distribution law, a parametric or nonparametric method of statistical analysis was chosen. In case of normal distribution of quantitative variables, the central tendencies and the spread of characteristics were described using the mean value (M) and mean square deviation (m).

3. Main results

The current labor schedule of workers at the agro-industrial complex is the following: employees work 8 hours in the daytime for two days, then they work 8 hours at nighttime for two days as well. After that, four days are given for rest.

The study of CNS functions allowed to determine the degree of fatigue during the working shift. The tables show the results of one brigade (14 people). The results of examination of other brigades do not have statistically reliable differences with the former. The functional state of the CNS during a working shift was examined with the Landolt ring test (Table 1). Such parameters as the time required to perform the test, the test performance velocity, and the rate of errors made by an examined worker were determined in the course of the study.

Table 1 - Changes in the CNS state during a 8-hour shift according to the Landolt ring test

No.

Start of shift

 

Mid shift

End of shift

V1-V

V2-V

T1-T

T2-T

ER1-ER

ER2-ER

V

Т

ER

V1

T1

ER1

V2

T2

ER2

1.

236

68

0

250

62

1

250

65

2

-14

-14

-6

-3

1

2

2.

218

67

1

208

70

0

208

78

1

10

10

3

11

-1

0

3.

250

45

4

234

68

2

200

78

2

16

50

23

33

-2

-2

4.

124

87

0

124

69

0

120

89

1

0

4

2

2

0

1

5.

224

68

1

200

70

1

192

78

2

24

32

2

10

0

1

6.

250

67

2

240

73

1

235

80

2

10

15

6

13

-1

0

7.

222

85

0

220

87

0

208

87

0

2

14

2

2

0

0

8.

216

72

0

210

80

1

200

72

0

0

10

-2

0

1

0

9.

250

145

0

228

145

0

230

150

1

22

20

0

5

0

1

10.

169

90

0

165

87

1

160

87

2

4

9

-3

-3

1

0

11.

120

165

0

80

185

1

100

165

0

40

20

20

0

1

0

12.

159

100

1

150

102

1

150

105

2

9

9

2

5

0

1

13.

176

90

0

170

92

0

168

92

1

6

8

2

2

0

1

14.

256

65

0

250

62

1

236

68

1

6

20

-3

3

1

1

TOTAL:

135.0

207.0

48.0

80.0

1.0

8.0

М±m

9.64±3.46

17.7±3.86

3.42± 2.2

5.7± 2.47

0.07±0.24

0.57± 0.23

P

<0.05

<0.05

>0.05

<0.05

>0.05

<0.05

Note: V is the test performance velocity, Т is the test performance time, ER is the error rate

The physiological results of the testing show that during the 3-time study, fatigue was recorded mainly at the end of the working shift, and in case of working in the night shift – partially in the mid-shift testing too.

Evaluation of a visuomotor reaction (Table 2) did not reveal reliable differences. The CNS state restored while the workers were resting between shifts. This conclusion is based on the fact that in repeated studies, the indices always corresponded to the ones of the start of the shift.

Table 2 - Changes in a visuomotor reaction during a 8-hour shift

No.

Latent Period

MS-SOS

EOS-SOS

Error rate

MS-SOS

EOS-SOS

SOS

MS

EOS

SOS

MS

EOS

1.

443

400

501

-43

8

0

0

1

0

1

2.

331

328

330

-2

-3

0

1

0

1

0

3.

450

400

466

-50

16

1

1

1

0

0

4.

296

300

383

4

87

0

0

1

0

1

5.

278

300

301

22

23

0

1

0

1

0

6.

432

400

398

-32

34

0

0

2

0

2

7.

482

500

465

18

-17

1

0

0

-1

-1

8.

329

300

265

-28

-64

0

1

0

1

0

9.

414

450

490

36

76

1

1

2

0

1

10.

580

559

570

-21

-10

0

0

0

0

0

11.

326

330

364

4

38

1

0

1

-1

0

12.

501

510

510

9

9

0

0

0

0

0

13.

329

330

340

1

11

0

1

0

1

0

14.

466

430

446

-36

-20

1

0

1

-1

0

 TOTAL:

-19

120

 -

 -

1.0

4.0

 М±m

-1.35±7.47

8.57±10.7

 -

0.07±0.19

0.28±0.19

 Р

>0.05

>0.05

 -

>0.05

>0.05

V is the test performance velocity, Т is the test performance time, ER is the error rate.

An intensifying excitatory process in the nervous system has a certain effect on thermoregulation in various forms of labor. Our studies of the weighted average skin temperature revealed a certain dependence during an 8-hour shift: changes in the skin temperature between the start and the end of the shift (Table 3, 4) were found statistically reliable (P < 0.05).

Table 3 - Changes in the workers’ weighted average skin temperature during an 8-hour shift

No.

Forehead skin

Palmar surface of finger

Dorsum of finger

Dorsum of hand

MS-SOS

EOS-SOS

MS-SOS

EOS-SOS

MS-SOS

EOS-SOS

MS-SOS

EOS-SOS

1.

0.2

-0.4

2.2

1.4

1.1

1.0

1.2

1.6

2.

0

-0.2

-3.0

0.8

-0.7

0.5

-3.4

1.2

3.

0.6

0.1

-0.9

0.7

0.2

0.9

2.0

2.5

4.

0.1

0.4

0.5

0.3

0.6

1.0

2.1

0.4

5.

0.7

1.2

0

-0.2

-0.5

-1.9

-0.6

-0.4

6.

2.7

2.4

2.4

8.4

1.3

0.2

1.1

2.7

7.

-1.4

-0.8

0.8

1.4

0.2

1.5

1.0

1.4

8.

1.8

1.1

1.0

1.4

2.5

2.7

0.9

1.3

9.

-0.4

0

7.3

0.1

4.4

3.7

2.0

0.6

10.

-0.1

0.1

-0.2

0.2

-1.7

0.9

-0.9

0.1

11.

0.5

0.1

1.0

2.4

2.0

2.0

0.1

1.0

12.

0.5

0.3

6.1

4.2

3.6

4.5

4.7

3.5

13.

0

-0.1

8.7

4.4

7.5

4.2

6.4

1.8

14.

-0.6

0

-1.6

0.8

-0.5

0.2

-1.6

-0.2

Total:

4.5

4.2

24.3

41.9

16.0

26.4

15.9

27.5

М±м

0.32±0.26

0.3±0.21

1.73±0.9

2.99±0.94

1.14±0.77

1.88±0.57

1.13±0.64

1.96±0.75

Р

>0.05

>0.05

>0.05

<0.05

>0.05

<0.01

>0.05

<0.05

Note: SOS is the start of shift, MS is the mid shift, EOS is the end of shift (EOS-SOS is the skin temperature difference)

Table 4 - Workers’ weighted average skin temperature during an 8-hour shift

Measurement point

Number of examined workers

Start of shift

Mid shift

End of shift

М±м

М±м

М±м

Forehead skin

14

33.60±0.18

33.91±0.18

34.0±0.11

Palmar surface of finger

14

30.85±0.88

32.47±0.76

37.05±0.33

Dorsum of finger

14

30.28±0.83

31.72±0.53

32.24±0.41

Dorsum of hand

14

31.02±0.46

31.95±0.33

32.22±0.30

4. Discussion

The level of functional capacity of the central and autonomic nervous systems is the biological foundation of important qualities of a professional activity, which influence this activity and are important for its performance. If the production environment is good, it is difficult to discover a relationship between the employees’ health and the existing working conditions at the enterprise. At the same time, the lability of CNS indices and a subsequent increase in the level of non-occupational pathology can be regarded as stages of latent, slowly developing changes in workers’ organisms. The absence of significant disorders of the central nervous system in the agro-industrial complex workers demonstrates their high professional training and good adaptation to production conditions.

5. Conclusion

Applying adequate methods of functional diagnostics allows to reveal pre-pathological changes in the human body or to establish their absence, which is necessary for timely preventive measures, and can also be used in the course of preliminary medical examinations when hiring potential employees.

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