Research article
Issue: № 1 (21), 2022


In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the use of genetic methods to create more disease–resistant livestock. Because of its important role in the immune system, in such studies, the toll–like receptor 4 (TLR4) gene is one of the promising genes. The article focuses on studying the polymorphism (c.9421C > T) of the TLR4 – Alu I gene by PCR–RLFP in the population of Holstein cattle in the Republic of Tatarstan. During DNA diagnostics of 390 cows, alleles A (0.451) and B (0.549) and genotypes AA (19.5%), AB (51.3%) and BB (29.2%) were identified. Milk yield for the first standard lactation (p 0.01), the content of milk fat (p 0.05) and protein (p 0.01), as well as dry matter (p 0.01) in milk was statistically significantly higher in first–calf cows with the AA genotype of the TLR4 gene. In cows with the AA genotype, the number of somatic cells, with a statistical difference (p 0.001), was more than 50.0% lower than this indicator in animals with the BB genotype. The calculation of the economic efficiency of milk production from cows with different genotypes of the TLR4 gene showed that with the same financial costs, profit, and profitability are significantly higher from livestock with the AA genotype.

Full text is available in pdf only


  • Carvajal A.M. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in immunity–related genes and their association with mastitis in Chilean dairy cattle / A.M. Carvajal, P. Huircan, A. Lepori // Genetics and Molecular Research. – 2013. – Vol. 12 (3). – P. 2702–2711. DOI: 10.4238/2013.July.30.8

  • Сафина Н.Ю. Анализ полиморфизма гена лактоферрина (LTF) в популяциях голштинского скота / Н.Ю. Сафина, Ю.Р. Юльметьева, Ф.Ф. Зиннатова и др. // Ветеринария, зоотехния и биотехнология. – 2019. – № 2. – С. 88–94. DOI: 10.26155/vet.zoo.bio.201902014

  • Сафина, Н.Ю. Полиморфизм гена манноза–связывающего лектина 1 (MBL1) в популяции голштинского скота Республики Татарстан / Н.Ю. Сафина, Ф.Ф. Зиннатова, Ф.Ф. Шакиров и др. // Аграрный научный журнал. – 2021. – № 9. – С. 71–74. DOI: 10.28983/asj.y2021i9pp71–74

  • Wang X. Genetic Polymorphism of TLR4 Gene and Correlation with Mastitis in Cattle / X. Wang, Sh. Xu, X. Gao et al. // Journal of Genetics and Genomics. – 2007. – Vol. 34(5). – P. 406–412.

  • Beecher Ch. Polymorphisms in bovine immune genes and their associations with somatic cell count and milk production in dairy cattle / Ch. Beecher, M. Daly, S. Childs et al. // BMC Genetics. – 2010. – No 11:99. DOI:10.1186/1471–2156–11–99

  • Sharma B.S. Association of Toll–Like Receptor 4 Polymorphisms with Somatic Cell Score and Lactation Persistency in Holstein Bulls / B.S. Sharma, I. Leyva, F. Schenkel et al. // J. Dairy Sci. – 2006. – Vol. 89. – P. 3626–3635.

  • Girish H. TLR4 Gene Polymorphism and its Association with Mastitis Resistance in Indigenous and Crossbred Cattle of Tamil Nadu, India / H. Girish, S.N. Sivaselvam, S.M.K. Karthickeyan et al. // Journal of Dairy, Veterinary & Animal Research. – 2016. – Vol. 3(1). –P. 32–35. DOI: 10.15406/jdvar.2016.03.00069

  • Moura E.O. Evaluation of microbiological, cellular and risk factors associated with subclinical mastitis in female buffaloes / E.O. Moura, A.H.N. Rangel, M.C.N. Melo et al. // Asian–Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences. – 2017. – Vol. 30. – P. 1340–1349.

  • El–Khodery S.A. Acute coliform mastitis in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis): clinical findings and treatment outcomes / S.A. El–Khodery, S.A. Osman // Tropical Animal Health and Production. – 2008. – Vol. 40. – P. 93–99.

  • Reyher K.K. Examining the effect of intramammary infections with minor mastitis pathogens on the acquisition of new intramammary infections with major mastitis pathogens—a systematic review and meta–analysis / K.K. Reyher, D. Haine, I.R. Dohoo et al // Journal of Dairy Science. – 2012. – No 95. – P. 6483–6502.

  • Schepper St.De. The toll–like receptor–4 (TLR–4) pathway and its possible role in the pathogenesis of Escherichia coli mastitis in dairy cattle / St.De. Schepper, A.De. Ketelaere, D.D. Bannerman et al. // Vet. Res. – 2008. – Vol. 39. – P. 05. DOI: 10.1051/vetres:2007044

  • White S.N. Haplotype variation in bovine Toll–like receptor 4 and computational prediction of a positively selected ligand–binding domain / S.N. White, K.H. Taylor, C.A. Abbey et al. // Genetics. – 2003. – Vol. 100(18) DOI: www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073.pnas.1333957100

  • El–Domany W.B. Genetic polymorphisms in LTF/EcoR I and TLR4/Alu I loci as candidates for milk and reproductive performance assessment in Holstein cattle / W.B. El–Domany, H.A. Radwan, A.I. Ateya et al. // Reprod Domest Anim. – 2019. – Vol. 54(4). – P. 678–686. DOI: 10.1111/rda.13408

  • Zhou H. Variation in the Toll–like Receptor 4 (TLR4) gene affects milk traits in dairy cows / H. Zhou, L. Cheng, H. Gong et al. // Journal of Dairy Research. – 2017. – Vol. 84. – P. 426–429. DOI:10.1017/S0022029917000711

  • Noori R. Association of polymorphism in Exon 3 of toll–like receptor 4 gene with somatic cell score and milk production traits in Holstein dairy cows of Iran / R. Noori, A.H. Mahdavi, M.A. Edriss et al. // South African Journal of Animal Science. – 2013. – Vol 43 (No 4). – 493–498. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/sajas.v43i4.6

  • Mišeikienė R. The influence of TLR4 gene polymorphisms on milk quality and composition of Lithuanian Holstein cows / R. Mišeikienė, A. Švedaitė, R. Bižienė et al. // Mljekarstvo. – 2020. – No 70 (2). – P. 112–119 DOI: 10.15567/mljekarstvo.2020.0205

  • Wang M. Toll–like receptor 4 gene polymorphisms influence milk production traits in Chinese Holstein cows / M. Wang, H. Song, X. Zhu et al. // Journal of Dairy Research. – 2018. – Vol. 85 (4). – P. 1–5. DOI:10.1017/S0022029918000535

  • Roldan–Montes V. Polymorphisms in TLR4 Gene Associated With Somatic Cell Score in Water Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) / V. Roldan–Montes, D.F. Cardoso, N.A. Hurtado–Lugo et al. // Front. Vet. Sci. – 2020. – No 7:568249. DOI: 10.3389/fvets.2020.568249