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Main environmental pollutants in trout aquaculture are non–ionized ammonium (ammonia) and nitrite. Ammonia is produced by protein catabolism in fish and is excreted from the blood through the gills. Decreased growth, erosion of tissues (kidneys, gills and skin) and degenerative processes in other tisuues and organs, immune suppression and high mortality of fish are associated with the accumulation of large amounts of ammonium in aquatic systems.
An analysis of the literature data showed that the isolated bacterial complex reduces the ammonia content in the trout cultivation system. The treatment group achieved a reduction in mortality and an increase in gains. In addition, a decrease in stress and immune responses was observed when water contains heterotrophic ammonium and nitrite microbial complex (HAN) compared to the control fish group. This review shows that HAN culture applied to water in aquaculture effectively reduced the concentration of non–ionized ammonia. This leads to an improvement in the physiological state of the trout and an increase in its growth. Combined application of strains of two bacterial species Dyadobacter sp. and Janthinobacterium sp. can be recommended for rainbow trout farming systems as it results in a significant acceleration of Rainbow trout growth and maturation.
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