BIODIVERSITY OF SHALLOW SOLONETS BACTERIAS, OCCUPIED LONGLY WITH CROP ROTATION WITH BROMUS INERMIS (POACEAE)
Soil salinization is a growing global environmental problem today. It is possible to cultivate such soils by cultivating biomeliorant herbs. This aspect has been studied in Western Siberia (where 40% of the territory is occupied by saline soils) using the example of a shallow medium sodium solonetz, which has been occupied by the forage crop Bromus inermis Leyss for more than 30 years. Bromus Inermis, referring to grasses with high ecological plasticity and salt tolerance, has been sown in a crop rotation since 1987: field one is sown with millet, field two is sown with millet and bromegrass, and fields 3-6 are sown with bromegrass. Such long-term cultivation of B. inermis transformed the shallow solonetz and altered the metagenomic diversity of microorganisms. The taxonomic composition of the bacterial domain was determined in the 0-15 cm soil layer in comparison with virgin soil by the method of high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene V3-V4 region. Total DNA was isolated from the samples using the DNeasy PowerSoil Kit (Qiagen), alpha and beta diversity was analyzed by Usearch v11.0.667. The cultivation of Bromus inermis in a forage crop rotation for 30 years led to the formation of a specific soil metagenome. It differs from the virgin solonetz shallow in taxonomic richness and uniformity. Under the influence of seeded cereals, the number of OTUs Gemmatimonadetes in the microbiome increased (they are considered indicators of dryness), the abundance of genera from the Proteobacteria class increased by 40%, and there were significantly fewer representatives of the main virgin phylum Actinobacteria (1.7 times). The first representatives indicate a decrease in moisture content of hydromorphic solonetz soil. The second representatives show an improvement in soil nitrogen exchange.
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