STRESS RESISTANCE OF AGRICULTURAL PLANTS IN RELATION TO POLLUTANTS OF EXHAUST GASES

Main Article Content

Svetlana Sinyutina
S. Romantsova
I. Gladysheva
N. Vervekina
S. Nagornov
A. Lixutina
A. Kornev

Abstract

One of the tasks of crop production at the present time is to eliminate stress factors that worsen the condition of agricultural structures. The rate of photosynthetic processes, and hence the productivity of agricultural crops decreases by the action of a stress factor. The influence of pollutants of exhaust gases of automobile engines on five types of crops such as sunflower, soybeans, oats, peas, and wheat has been investigated. It was established that the contamination of the exhaust gases of vehicles results in a reduction in the content of chlorophyll a (up to 40%), chlorophyll b (up to 60%) and carotenoids (up to 70%) in crops grown in the immediate vicinity of the highway, as compared to the section of the field located at a considerable distance from the road. The sensitivity of the photosynthetic apparatus of the studied crops to pollution is highest in sunflower and oats. Soybeans have the lowest sensitivity. The maximum decrease in the ratio of chlorophylls a and b was recorded for oats, which indicates its low stress resistance. The best defense mechanism in relation to the effects of exhaust gas pollutants is observed in soybeans. The use of biodiesel fuel is proposed as a way to reduce the stress impact of exhaust gases on agricultural crops. An improvement in the environmental performance of the МТЗ-80 tractor engine has been registered when it is running on a fuel mixture containing 60% (vol.) of commercial petroleum diesel fuel and 40% of biodiesel fuel. When using fuel compositions, smokiness of the exhaust gases is 10-21% lower, the content of carbon monoxide (II) in them is reduced by 12-24%, and the content of unburned hydrocarbons is 12-32% less compared to oil fuel.

Article Details

Section
Pollution

References

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